The Playsport London Facilities Fund has been set up by the mayor as part of a bid to establish a grassroots sports legacy from the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.
It is hoped that investment in sports schemes will also help to address a "significant shortfall" in community facilities across the capital, with many venues oversubscribed.
Redbridge Sports Centre (£200,000) and the Europa Centre in Bexley (£200,000) - both confirmed as 2012 Games Time training venues - are among the recipients of funding.
Haringey Council will net £250,000 towards a multiple pool redevelopment scheme, while Coolhurst Lawn Tennis and Squash Club will receive £100,000.
Enfield's Queen Elizabeth II Stadium will benefit from a grant worth £250,000 towards revamped changing facilities, while Camberwell Baths has been awarded £50,000.
Epping Forest, on behalf of Orion Harriers running club, has been awarded £50,000 towards a new clubhouse. Westway Sports Centre has been handed £42,000.
Elsewhere, Haringey's National Centre for Autism Education (£21,327); Vale Farm Sports Centre in Brent (£16,250); and Star Park (£30,000) and Gooseley Playing Fields (£30,000) - both in Newham - also receive funding.
Princes Park Youth Football Charity in Barnet (£23,500) is the remaining recipient of support through the mayor's fund.
Johnson said: "We are fast approaching the final furlong in the build up to the 2012 Games and we want to harness this magnificent opportunity to improve sporting facilities throughout the capital and encourage many more people into sport for generations to come.
"By working with local organisations, we aim to get inert Londoners off their sofas and involved in a range of activity, and to achieve a true Olympic and Paralympic legacy."
Kate Hoey, the mayor's commissioner for sport, added: "The facilities we are investing in will provide sporting opportunities for people who are inspired by the Games to take up sport for many years to come."